Classic History Books

The History of England by A. E. Pollard

i.e. anarchy.
1154-1189. HENRY II restores order, curbs the military power of the

barons by scutage (1159), the Assize of Arms (1181), and the

substitution of sworn inquest for the ordeal and trial by battle,

and their jurisdiction by the development of the royal court of

justice through assizes of Clarendon, Northampton, etc. Teaches

the people to rely on their judgment. Restrains the sheriffs, and

attempts to limit ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the

constitutions of Clarendon (1164). Quarrel with Becket.

1189-1199. RICHARD I. Crusade and wars In France.

1199-1210. JOHN'S tyranny. Loss of Normandy (1204). Quarrel with the

church and baronage. Tries to retrieve his position by spirited

foreign policy. Defeated at Bouvines (1214) and forced to sign

Magna Carta (1215).

1216-1272. HENRY III. Beginnings of national government under De Burgh.

Naval victory (1217). Alien domination of Henry's favourites

provokes baronial resistance. Growth of native wealth and

influence, and of an English party in the Barons' War (1258-

1265). Simon De Montfort. Townsfolk summoned to Parliament.

1272-1307. EDWARD I, the first English king since the Norman Conquest.

Emergence of the English people, their language, national

weapons, towns, commerce. The Model Parliament(1275, 1295).

Confirmation of the charters(1297). National resistance to the

Papacy, and national enterprises against Wales and Scotland.

1307-1327. EDWARD II. The relapse of Monarchy. Baronage becoming

peerage. Thomas of Lancaster.

1327-1377. EDWARD III. Growth of nationalism in religion, politics,

literature, trade, and war. The Commons take the constitutional

lead abandoned by the peers. Lollardy and hostility to the

Papacy. Decay of manorial system: emancipation of villeins:

growth of industry and towns.

1377-1399. RICHARD II, Revolt of the peasants and artisans (1381).

Tries to emancipate himself from the control of the peers, and is


1399-1413. HENRY IV and the Lancastrian dynasty. Revolt of the Percies

(1403). Henry's troubles with over-mighty subjects.

1413-1422. HENRY V seeks escape from domestic troubles in foreign war.

1415. Battle of Agincourt. Treaty of Troyes (1420).

1422. HENRY VI. Rivalry between Beaufort and Gloucester leads to growth

of Lancastrian and Yorkist factions, and these with local anarchy

produce the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485).

1461. EDWARD IV secures the throne, and in 1471 defeats both the

Lancastrians and Warwick the King-maker.


1485. HENRY VII and the House of Tudor.

1487. Organization of the Star Chamber to repress disorder and over-


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